78th SAWE International Conference Program

78th SAWE International Conference on Mass Properties Engineering 
May 18-23, 2019
Hilton Norfolk – “The Main”
Norfolk, Virginia, USA

Full 2019 Conference Program (pdf)

Technical Sessions Overview: (Technical Track Summary Presentation Schedule (pdf)

SAWE Anti-Trust Policy

Click/tap on a date to open/close session details. Use search to find event details or topics.


Saturday 18 May 2019

8:00 am - 4:00 pm Board of Directors Meeting (Energy 1 & 2 Third Floor)

Board of Directors Meeting

Energy 1 & 2

Sat 8:00 am - 4:00 pm
Special Events

Full Day Training Classes - Saturday

Designing the Aircraft of the Future - Day 1

Andy Walker & Jerry PiersonMomentum 1

This two day class presents the principles of weight engineering in new Aircraft Design as described in the SAWE Aircraft Weight Engineering Textbook. Course topics include: requirements development, aircraft performance, conceptual aircraft design weight estimates & optimization, weight trades, engine selection, vendor weight selection, establishing target weights, operational weight, preliminary design studies, detail design and database management. The class will use the issues that occur with future trainer aircraft as an example of applied Weight Engineering.

Students attending the class will receive a copy of the Aircraft Weight Engineering Textbook.

Andy Walker & Jerry Pierson
Sat 8:00 am - 4:00 pm

Introduction to Mass Properties Measurement

Jerry Pierson (SAWE Honorary Fellow Retired)Imagination

This is a basic class which teaches measurement of weight, center-of-gravity, and moments of inertia (MOI). Effects of gravity variation due to latitude and altitude will be explained. This class will demonstrate and teach moment of inertia measuring techniques typically used for missiles and control surfaces. The Mass Properties Measurement class will contain both a classroom presentation and a laboratory session. The class will consist of approximately three hours of lecture and five hours of hands-on laboratory session with participants making mass properties measurements.

Jerry Pierson
Sat 8:00 am - 4:00 pm

Ship Inclining

AJ Bierbauer (HII-NNS)Adrenaline

This one day class will discuss the inclining of a vessel in order to determine its displacement (weight) and center of gravity. The primary emphasis will be on inclining in water, but inclining in air will also be covered. A classroom session on the theory, procedure, and results of inclining will be held, followed by an actual demonstration of inclining techniques aboard a waterborne vessel.

Sat 8:00 am - 4:00 pm

Half Day Training - Saturday AM

Introduction to Marine Weight Engineering for Non-Naval Architects

Dom Cimino (SAWE Honorary Fellow CACI International)Momentum 3

The objective of this half day class is to provide an overview of the fundamentals of naval architecture principles and standard practices, and provide a basic understanding of the weight engineering processes relative to the marine vehicles in a marine environment with the effects of buoyancy, wind, and sea conditions. The course highlights the differences in mass properties in the marine industry versus the allied industries, as well as discusses actual examples of practical impacts of weight engineering in the marine industry. The course
includes practical examples and class exercises.

Sat 8:00 am - 12:00 pm

Half Day Training - Saturday PM

Introduction to Naval Architecture

John CapinMomentum 3

Sat 1:00 pm - 5:00 pm

Sunday 19 May 2019

Exhibitor Display Setup - Sunday

Exhibitor Display Setup

Granby Salon E

Sun 8:00 am - 8:00 pm
Vendors & Exhibitors

Full Day Training Classes - Sunday

Designing the Aircraft of the Future – Day 2

Andy Walker & Jerry PiersonMomentum 1

This two day class presents the principles of weight engineering in new Aircraft

Design as described in the SAWE Aircraft Weight Engineering Textbook.

Course topics include: requirements development, aircraft performance,

conceptual aircraft design weight estimates & optimization, weight trades, engine

selection, vendor weight selection, establishing target weights, operational weight,

preliminary design studies, detail design and database management. The class

will use the issues that occur with future trainer aircraft as an example of applied

Weight Engineering.

Students attending the class will receive a copy of the Aircraft Weight Engineering



Andy Walker & Jerry Pierson
Sun 8:00 am - 5:00 pm

Marine Vehicle Weight Estimating Methodology

David Hansch (HII-NNS)Energy 1

This is a full day class discussing the fundamentals of marine vehicle weight estimating, and includes a survey of the weight estimating methods described in SAWE Recommended Practice 14 “Marine Weight Estimating & Margin Policy Guideline”. The class will cover the theory and application of these methods on specific examples and for whole ship design.  The appropriateness of each method for each stage of ship design, construction, and operation will be discussed. The students will work examples to estimate the weight of a vessel using multiple methods.
Additionally, historic examples of weight estimating errors will be discussed as
an example of practices to be avoided. Classroom materials and exercises will
be provided. Students should have reviewed Chapter 24 in the Weight Engineers
Handbook, and SAWE RP 14 found on the SAWE website.

Sun 8:00 am - 5:00 pm

Half Day Training – Sunday

Aircraft Fuel System Calibration & Verification Course

Rod Van Dyk (SAWE Fellow, Safran Landing SystemsMomentum 3

Mass Properties Engineers are often requested to either participate in or generate a fuel system calibration and verification process for new aircraft in development or for aircraft whose fuel systems have been modified, since it involves having the aircraft supported on scales. This course gives all the pertinent steps to ensure that this process is completed in a safe, successful, and timely manner.
This four hour class outlines the basic fuel usage process; including how fuel quantities are measured, fuel system calibration techniques, understanding terminology such as usable and unusable fuel, and all aspects of fuel usage that can be determined on the ground. Some hands-on non-fl ammable liquid density measurements representative of fuel density measurements will also be part of the class.

Sun 8:00 am - 12:00 pm

8:00 am - 10:00 am SAWE Officer Transition Meeting

The President and President-Elect will host a meeting between the incoming and
outgoing elected and appointed officers. The purpose of the meeting is to affect a
successful transition of duties to the new officers to assist them in the learning
curve with ongoing tasks and near and long-term priorities. This meeting will also
be to communicate the incoming President’s focus and expectations for the coming
society year.

SAWE Officer Transition Meeting

Momentum 2

The President and President-Elect will host a meeting between the incoming and outgoing elected and appointed officers. The purpose of the meeting is to affect a successful transition of duties to the new officers to assist them in the learning curve with ongoing tasks and near and long-term priorities. This meeting will also be to communicate the incoming President’s focus and expectations for the coming society year.

Sun 8:00 am - 10:00 am
Special Events

8:30 am - 5:00 pm ShipWeight NA User Group Meeting

ShipWeight North American User Group Meeting

Runar AasenEnergy 2

The 13th ShipWeight User Group meeting will be held on Sunday, May 19th, 2019, in conjunction with the 78th SAWE International Conference on Mass Properties Engineering (May 18-23, 2019 in Norfolk, Virginia, USA). The meeting will be of interest to active ShipWeight users as well as those who are considering acquiring it.

The meeting is also an opportunity to meet other ShipWeight users in an informal setting for exchanging experiences and discussions on best practices.  Last, but not least, it is a great opportunity to provide feedback to BAS Engineering as developers of ShipWeight and participate in making priorities for future development of the software.

ShipWeight User Meeting – Tentative Schedule

ShipWeight User Meeting – Tentative Schedule
8:30 am – 8:35 am   Welcome
8:35 am – 9:00 am   Overview of the New Release, ShipWeight 13
9:00 am - 9:30 am    Working Efficiently in the Item Window
9:30 am - 10:00 am   The Improved Compare Window
10:00 am – 10:30 am  Coffee Break
10:30 am – 11:00 am  3D Representation of the Weight Database
11:00 am – 11:30 am  The Secondary WBS Option in ShipWeight 13
11:30 am – 12:00 pm  User Presentation (TBD)
12:00 pm – 1:00 pm  Lunch Break
1:00 pm – 1:30 pm   Digital Deadweight Survey Using Ship Weight as Data Source
1:30 pm – 2:00 pm   Revising QA Methods in ShipWeight
2:00 pm - 3:00 pm   Phase Codes vs Custom Codes vs Parent/Child
3:00 pm – 3:30 pm   Coffee Break
3:30 pm – 4:00 pm   The New Permission Control Features in ShipWeight 13
4:00 pm - 4:30 pm   Questions and Answers/Discussions

Sun 8:30 am - 5:00 pm
Special Events

11:45 am - 4:00 pm Nauticus & USS Wisconsin Tour (XCHG Level Three Registration)

Nauticus & USS Wisconsin Tour

Granby Ballroom Foyer

Meet at the Granby Ballroom Foyer.

Sun 11:45 am - 4:00 pm

5:30 pm - 6:00 pm New Attendees Gathering

New Attendees Gathering

Granby Ballroom Foyer

Sun 5:30 pm - 6:00 pm
Special Events

6:00 pm - 8:00 pm Welcome Reception (Granby Ballroom Foyer)

Welcome Reception

Granby Ballroom Foyer

Sun 6:00 pm - 8:00 pm
Special Events

Monday 20 May 2019

8:00 am - 5:00 pm Exhibitor Displays - Monday (Granby Salon E)

Exhibitor Displays

Granby Salon E

Mon 8:00 am - 5:00 pm
Vendors & Exhibitors

8:00 am - 9:30 am Opening Session (Granby Salon D)

8:00 Opening Session Speaker

Dawn Schaible, Director of Engineering
NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton VA

The Hampton Roads Chapter of the Society of Allied Weight Engineers is proud to introduce Ms. Dawn Schaible, Director of Engineering at the NASA Langley Research
Center, as our opening session speaker. Ms. Schaible will share highlights from the center’s past and present while discussing its bright future. Along the way she will share with us her personal experiences in the art and science of systems engineering and its role in mission success.
Langley is entering its second century of innovation and discovery. From biplanes to hypersonics and space exploration, the center has contributed to innumerable
aerospace engineering achievements since its founding as a National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics (NACA) test center in 1917. Today, Langley strives to continue that legacy with ongoing work on such programs as:

  • Space exploration, for robotic and manned missions, architecture and vehicle
  • Entry descent landing systems to enable robotic and human space exploration missions
  • Future air transportation - environmentally responsible aircraft, urban air transportation, personal air mobility, high speed air systems
  • Understanding our Earth environment as a system, air and space based measurement systems

Speaker: Dawn Schaible, Director of Engineering NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton VA Prior to her current position Ms. Schaible served as NASA’s Deputy Chief Engineer, where she led the implementation of the Chief Engineer’s role in Agency Technical Capability. She was the region’s “Peninsula Engineer of the Year” in 2012, nominated by the Hampton Roads Area Chapter of the International Council on Systems Engineering (INCOSE). She has also been Manager of Systems Engineering for the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC), providing systems engineering expertise to independent safety assessments of critical, high-risk issues. Prior to transferring to Langley in 2005, Ms. Schaible spent 18 years at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center where she held lead engineering positions for the Space Shuttle and International Space Station Programs. She has a M.S. degree in Engineering and Management from MIT, as well as an additional M.S. in Space Systems Operations from the Florida Institute of Technology, and had began her career with a Mechanical Engineering degree from Bradley University.
Mon 8:00 am - 9:30 am
Special Events

9:00 Opening Session Technical Presentation

Anne Weiss, Rosemary Smith - NASA Education Office

Paper 3713: Inspiring the Engineering Future Workforce through NASA's Capabilities



In response to the National Academy of Engineering’s 2004 report, Educating the Engineer of 2020, and two subsequent National Science Foundation studies examining effective strategies for educating the next generation of engineers, U.S. K-12 general education and undergraduate engineering programs have undergone numerous reforms. Instead of concentrating solely on technical knowledge (e.g., statics, mechanics, fluid dynamics, etc.), formal and informal teachers should now also enhance their instructional practices through interactive and immersive experiences that meet students where they are and equip them with 21st century workforce skills, such as collaboration, ability to consider societal and global contexts, and writing and public speaking. To support educators’ efforts and NASA’s 2019 Ascent Abort-2 (AA-2) Flight Test, the Langley Research Center’s Office of STEM Engagement partnered with the Flight Test Management and Public Affairs Offices to create a line of instructional products that help teachers and students to make the connections between NASA-unique assets, STEM content knowledge, and careers in mass properties engineering. This concurrent session will discuss some of the tools that the Society of Allied Weight Engineers could use in inspiring future mass properties engineers as well as virtual reality technology for applying theoretical knowledge to real-world engineering problems.

As Langley’s NASA STEM EPDC Specialist, Dr. Anne Weiss collaborates with NASA mission directorates to develop online educator professional development resources, and to support face-to-face events for teachers, students and the general public. Originally trained as a neuroscientist, Anne has taught courses in Earth science, chemistry, physical sciences and biology at both the K-12 and postsecondary levels since 1998. With research interests in online education and student retention in STEM fields, Anne earned a B.S. in Vertebrate Physiology from Penn State, a M.S. in Physiology from Arizona State University, and a Ph.D. in Higher Education Administration from Penn State University. Rosemary Smith is a NASA Education Specialist in the Office of STEM Engagement at NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. Smith is responsible for developing and delivering Educator Professional Development to pre-service and in-service teachers and informal educators. Smith earned her degree in Applied Mathematics at Old Dominion University and began her teaching career in the fall of 2004.
Mon 8:00 am - 9:30 am
Technical Track

Social Events - Monday

Norfolk Botanical Gardens

XCHG Level Three Registration

Training - Monday

Aircraft Weight and Balance - Day 1

Momentum 1

Tom Oole
Mon 9:00 am - 5:00 pm

Mass Properties & Automotive Lateral Dynamics

Momentum 3

Brian Paul Wiegand
Mon 9:00 am - 5:00 pm

9:30 am - 10:00 am Morning Break - Monday (Granby Salon E)

Morning Break

Mon 9:30 am - 10:00 am
Food Breaks

10:00 am - 12:00 pm Statistics Session #1 (Granby Salon D)

Session Chairman: Robert Zimmerman (SAWE VP-Technical Director)

10:00 Paper 3729 Application of the Basic Parametric Methods

Doug Fisher (Manager, Engineering ACE Team & Weight – Aerostructures COLLINS AEROSPACE)


This paper details how the learning contained in SAWE course “Developing Basic Parametric Methods” was applied at Collins Aerospace for estimating nacelle weights of new commercial and business jet aircraft. Collins has decades of experience developing nacelles and a large database of historical weight data, but has not effectively leveraged that data into better weight estimating tools. Learning from this course was applied to develop improved methods of estimating the weight of nacelles for new product proposals. This has allowed us to not only provide better weight estimates but also better understand the limits of our data and estimating methods.

Documents3729 Abstract (13 KB)
Mon 10:00 am - 12:00 pm
Technical Track

10:30 Paper 3719 Lightship Evolution Diagnostics with In-Service Stability Measurements

Colin MacFarlane and Manuela Bucci (Tymor Marine, Ltd)

Lightship mass and center of gravity are the basis for assessing ship regulatory stability and the maximum payload that the ship can load results from this assessment. Knowing the ship mass and centre of gravity is therefore of utmost importance for both commercial and safety reasons.
It is known that, over time, both these quantity change. At present, changes in the lightship are addressed by five-yearly audits that may lead to an inclining experiment - the traditional way to measure ship mass and centre of gravity. The time gaps are filled with estimates based on weight control which can be shown to be a ‘random walk’ process. This means that, temporarily, undetected worsening of the ship stability might occur.
Draught measurement provides immediate feedback of the accuracy of the estimate of weight change, provided draught sensors are adequately maintained. Evidence of change in the vertical position of the lightship center of gravity is not, however, obvious.
In-service stability measurements, integrated into the vessel’s operational routine, directly estimate the vessel VCG and can diagnose changes in the lightship vertical moment using statistical process control techniques. Changes in the progression of mean values of Deadweight and Lightship vertical moment are used instead of records of weight changes to build a model of ship stability over time with uncertainty on the mean value decreasing with increasing number of measurements. Weight control remains important to characterize the changes and discrepancies from the loading program can be used to identify sensor failures, defective estimates of cargo deadweight and Lightship changes.
This paper briefly reviews conventional techniques (referring to previous Conference papers). It then discusses attempts to perform conventional inclinings at sea and the difficulties in obtaining precision, before setting out the methods of in-service stability assessment, techniques for analysis of the results and finally the control limits that can be used to trigger further investigation. The technology is suitable for autonomous vessels.

Documents3719 Abstract (20 KB)
Mon 10:00 am - 12:00 pm
Technical Track

11:00 Vendor Presentation - Space Electronics

Mon 10:00 am - 12:00 pm
Vendors & Exhibitors

11:30 Paper 3716 Methods of Determining Parametric Equations from Data with a Worked Example

David Hansch (Huntington Ingalls Industries)


The creation of parametric equations for weight estimation based on available
data for existent vehicles. A worked example based on weight data from
1930's and 1940's riveted submarines will be used to illustrate techniques to
produce parametric weight equations.

Documents3716 Abstract & Bio (12 KB)
Mon 10:00 am - 12:00 pm
Technical Track

10:00 am - 12:00 pm Surface Transportation Session (Fusion)

Session Chairman: Patrick Borden (Geocent)

10:00 Presentation Designing the World's Largest Mining Truck

Bryant Ward (Leibherr Mining Equipment Company)Fusion

Mon 10:00 am - 12:00 pm
Technical Track

10:30 Vendor Presentation - Intercomp


Mon 10:00 am - 12:00 pm
Vendors & Exhibitors

10:45 Vendor Presentation - TBD


Mon 10:00 am - 12:00 pm
Vendors & Exhibitors

11:00 Paper 3727 Trifilar Pendulum: Non-Small Oscillations and Calibration

Giorgio Previati and Federico Ballo (Politecnico di Milano)Fusion

The trifilar pendulum is a well-known and established technique for the measurement of the moment of inertia of rigid bodies. For such application, the motion off the pendulum, which is inherently nonlinear, is considered linear. As consequences, only small oscillations and pendula with long cables with respect to their distance should be employed for the measurement. However, in some application either to use non- small oscillation angles or to use pendulum with relative short cables have to be employed. In these cases, the motion cannot be considered linear and some error in the measurement could arise.
This paper aims to analyze the nonlinear motion off the pendulum. A formula is analytically derived for the calibration of the pendulum for non-small rotation angles. A sensitivity analysis is proposed to highlight the advantages of the proposed approach to the measurement of the moment of inertia of relatively small and compact bodies, such as tires and engines, and to full scale vehicles and airplanes.

Documents3727 ABSTRACT (13 KB)
Mon 10:00 am - 12:00 pm
Technical Track

11:30 Paper 3728 Investigation of the Mass Properties of Cars

Giorgio Previat, Gianpiero Mastinu, and Massimiliano Gobbi (Politecnico di Milano)Fusion

The knowledge of the mass properties (center off gravity location and inertia tensor) of cars is crucial for the analysis of their dynamic performances. The measurement of such properties is not always performed and their value is estimated by 3D models off some empirical formula. In this paper, the mass properties off cars are investigated by analyzing the measurements performed at the Politecnico di Milano. The measurements have been realized by the InTenso+ test rig off the Politecnico di Milano in the period from 2000 to 2018. The test rig is basically a multi-bar pendulum carrying the body under investigation and oscillating from well-known initial conditions. By means of a proper mathematical procedure, the mass properties of the body are accurately measured in a very short testing time.
The obtained measures are statistically analyzed and correlations are found with easily accessible vehicle data. On the basis of such correlations, formulae are proposed to have a quick and reasonable estimation of the most relevant mass parameters (center of gravity, heights and diagonal terms of the inertia tensor) of any vehicle.

Documents3728 Abstract (13 KB)
Mon 10:00 am - 12:00 pm
Technical Track

12:00 pm - 1:30 pm Lunch Break – Monday

Corporate Partners Luncheon

Varia Restaurant (2nd Floor)

By Invitation Only

Mon 12:00 pm - 1:30 pm
Special Events


no planned meal - on your own

Mon 12:00 pm - 1:30 pm
Food Breaks

1:30 pm - 3:00 pm Mass Properties Certification Forum (Granby Salon A,B,C)

1:30 Mass Properties Certification Forum

Granby Salon A,B,C

Mon 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm
Technical Track

3:30 pm - 5:30 pm Statistics Session #2 (Granby Salon A,B,C)

3:30 Paper 3710 Application of the Law of Propagation of Uncertainties to a Weight and CG Measurement System

Anjie Emmett (Analytic Mechanics Associates)


In order to quantify potential error in a measurement system, the uncertainties of all sources of uncertainty must be combined to generate a total system uncertainty. This quantified measurement system uncertainty may be used as a decision-making tool to determine the required accuracy of measurement devices such as load cells, scales, and laser trackers.

For NASA’s Ascent Abort 2 (AA-2) Flight Test, such an uncertainty quantification was performed to ensure that the Ground Support Equipment (GSE) designed to measure the mass and center of gravity (CG) of a Crew Module (CM) would meet the accuracy requirements set forth by the program. The uncertainties of the load cells used were combined with the laser tracker system’s positional uncertainty to determine the overall measurement system uncertainty, which met program requirements.

Anjie Emmett is a project engineer with Analytical Mechanics Associates. She has worked onsite at NASA Langley for 11 years, but has only worked in a mass properties role for three years. She is currently wrapping up her duties as the Crew Module/Separation Ring Mass Properties Lead for the Ascent Abort -2 project. She is also the Mass Properties Lead for the Low-Earth Orbit Flight Test of an Inflatable Decelerator (LOFTID) project. Outside of work, Anjie is the troop leader of 14 kindergarten-aged Girl Scouts and an active member of her local Kiwanis chapter. She also makes a mean loaf of sourdough bread.
Documents3710 Abstract (12 KB)
Mon 3:30 pm - 5:30 pm
Technical Track

4:00 Paper 3717 Evaluating a CoG Envelope Using a Probabilistic Approach

Robert Hundl (Fluor)


In the Energy and Chemicals Construction Industry, many onshore projects are using modular construction. This type of construction requires that the modules be transported from the fabrication yard to the project site. The fabrication yard may be distant from the project site, thus requiring a combination of ocean transportation and land transportation.
To verify the design, the structural analysis uses a given design weight limit and center of gravity (CoG) envelope for the various modes of transportation. The size of the CoG envelope can influence the strengthening requirements for the structure during the transportation phases. CoG envelopes are typically set as a percentage of the module length and width. In special cases, a probabilistic approach could be used to reduce the typical CoG envelope size for reducing the amount of strengthening requirements while also quantifying the risk to the project for reducing the size of the CoG envelope.

Robert Hundl has a Bachelor of Science in Aerospace Engineering from Texas A&M University. He has worked as a weight engineer in the Aerospace and Energy and Chemicals Industries. In the Aerospace Industry he worked for Boeing on the Space Shuttle Program in various capacities the last being the designated technical expert for NASA, USA, and Boeing for the Space Shuttle Orbiter. He worked on the Boeing Space Commercial Capsule Program. He spent a few years working for an instrumentation manufacturing company. In the Energy and Chemicals Industry he is Fluor’s designated Global Subject Matter Expert (SME) for Weight Management for Modular projects. He is an Honorary Fellow for SAWE. He has held several International and local positions for SAWE and has written several papers.
Documents3717 Abstract (12 KB)
Mon 3:30 pm - 5:30 pm
Technical Track

4:30 Vendor Presentation - Ensinger

Mon 3:30 pm - 5:30 pm
Vendors & Exhibitors

4:45 Vendor Presentation - TBD

Mon 3:30 pm - 5:30 pm
Vendors & Exhibitors

5:00 Paper 3724 Methods and Processes for Robust Mass Properties Management in the Automotive Industry with a Main Focus on Mass Uncertainties

Marcus Stegmiller (BMW)


The mass of an automobile represents a crucial parameter for development because it influences the design of the automobile as well as decisive purchasing characteristics such as driving dynamics, fuel consumption and range. The dimensioning effect of the automobile mass has so far led to the definition of challenging and fixed mass targets. Since the automotive industry is characterized by high cost pressure, product complexity (e.g. due to modular and platform strategies, supplier chains and manufacturing constraints), increasing product range and volatile boundary conditions (e.g. due to regulation) automobile masses are permanently changing during development. This can no longer be robustly controlled by fixed mass targets. In practice, this often results in late missed mass targets, which lead to heavy and costly countermeasures.
Therefore, the specific requirements of the automotive industry demand a highly developed mass properties management (MPM). This paper presents such a MPM through a practice-oriented and flexible methodology. The methodology is based on existing MPM approaches (including SAWE practices) and adapted to the automotive industry. It consists of a mass target framework enriched by a mass prognosis tool, an economic evaluation method for automobile mass scenarios, methods for identifying lightweight design measures and a phase-adequate determination of mass uncertainties. The methods are strongly based on the approach of PGE - Product Generation Engineering, which says that products are developed in generations and therefore information can be reused.
This paper deals in particular with the determination of mass uncertainties. Five types of mass uncertainties are identified, compared to the SAWE mass change codes and quantified on the basis of real automobile projects. Since the uncertainties provide transparency on mass potentials and risks, a suitable approach corridor for mass target guidance is derived from them. Furthermore, approaches are presented how mass uncertainties can be interpreted as quality indicators of current MPM processes and how the entire method can be automated. Finally, the mentioned methods above are combined to form a process to derive and manage robust mass targets, buffers and design masses for automobile development.

Mon 3:30 pm - 5:30 pm
Technical Track

3:30 pm - 5:30 pm Student Papers and Misc. (Fusion)

Session Chairman: Jeff Cerro (NASA LaRC)

3:30 Paper S3726 Toolchain Integration for Space Habitat Design

Maxwell Devoe (NASA LaRC Intern)


Space habitat design is an iterative process that requires multiple revisions before a final product can be ascertained. Completing a project can prove cumbersome and time consuming, thus straining an organization’s resources. To counteract this issue, there was a desire to automate steps within the design process to improve the efficacy of the iterative aspect while also decreasing time spent developing designs. This paper will detail the main processes that were automated within the NASA LaRC Vehicle Analysis Branch environment. Examine is a custom Microsoft Excel-based spreadsheet that was used to consolidate parameter calculations within an encapsulated environment. IDEA is a model based systems engineering software that enables fast and efficient modifications to a CAD model, allowing for greater flexibility in the design process. To improve efficiency, the two design tools were linked to ensure fast and user-friendly data flow between them. The tools are controlled within a SysML application, consolidating the linkage into one interface for the user. This paper will detail the process of linking the tools together as well as the processes being executed within the individual tools themselves.

DocumentsS3726 Abstract (13 KB)
Mon 3:30 pm - 5:30 pm
Technical Track

4:00 S3730 Path To Be An Engineer

Brittany Johnston (Old Dominion University)


This is an unconventional Society of Allied Weight Engineers (SAWE) student conference paper that gives insight of how a person can have the will power to navigate on a journey of obtaining a new career. Becoming an engineer is far from easy, but it is possible to obtain. I take that possibility with positivity that enables me to make the great strides that I must complete. This paper gives insight to who I am and why I must make this change.

DocumentsS3730 Abstract (12 KB)
Mon 3:30 pm - 5:30 pm
Technical Track

4:30 HERMES: Hazard Examination Reconnaissance Messenger for Extended Surveillance

Dr. Donna Gerren for Marcos Mejia (University of Colorado)


The University of Colorado at Boulder Aerospace Engineering Senior Projects Team HERMES (Hazard Examination and Reconnaissance Messenger for Extended Surveillance) is currently designing, building, and testing a child scout rover (CSR). This is the fourth installment in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) Fire Tracker System. The Fire Tracker System is designed to operate in forest fire-prone areas for early fire identification. HERMES aims to improve the Fire Tracker System by navigating through a forest like environment to a location of interest (LOI) while determining a viable path for the Fire Tracker System's previous installment, a large less maneuverable mother rover. To do this, the CSR must traverse over obstacles up to 2.4 inches in height, vertical discontinuities (9 inches wide by 2.4 inches deep), over leaves, dirt, grass, and up or down 20 degree inclined slopes in both open and wooded area. Additionally, the CSR must drive forward and in reverse, as well as perform 360 degree turns in place. To complete these mission objectives, the CSR uses a sensor suite for obstacle and discontinuity detection, a two-motor configuration with a drivetrain and gearbox powering 6 wheels for traversing obstacles, and a moving linear mass stage that shifts the CSR's center of mass to enable traversing over discontinuities. While on a mission, the CSR will have the capability to detect any discontinuities using two downward angled, single beam LiDAR sensors. If a discontinuity is detected, the CSR will stop and notify the user at the ground station. The user at the ground station then commands the CSR into a semi-autonomous discontinuity traversal mode, where the CSR utilizes two ultrasonic sensors mounted on the bottom of the CSR to determine whether it is over a discontinuity or flat ground. These sensors signal the software to move the linear mass stage to shift the center of mass depending on the CSR’s position over the discontinuity. The unique challenge of crossing discontinuities, and the solution, is discussed in this paper.

All authors are undergraduate students at the University of Colorado Boulder. This project is being sponsored by Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
DocumentsS3725 Abstract & Bio (13 KB)
Mon 3:30 pm - 5:30 pm
Technical Track

5:00 Paper 3695 Weight Considerations on the Appalachian Trail

Nicholas Marickovich - (Huntington Ingalls Industries Newport News Shipbuilding)


This paper aims to apply some engineering rigor to the questions surrounding pack weight, particularly when thru-hiking the Appalachian Trail, which I did in 2005 after graduating college. The paper will first describe, briefly, my own thru-hike which will set the stage for a discussion of pack weight, why it matters, and the trade-offs inherent in considering what to take along for the journey. The Marickovich Caloric Power Index (MCPI) will also be introduced, which attempts to optimize food choices based on weight, cost, and calories.

Mon 3:30 pm - 5:30 pm
Technical Track

Tuesday 21 May 2019

8:00 am - 8:30 am Standards and Practices Opening Session (Granby Salon D)

Standards and Practices help us to be more effective and minimize our day-to-day Mass Properties Engineering risk. SAWE’s Recommended Practices (RPs),
include the shared knowledge of how to be effective. Improving these RPs is so
important that we devote a whole day to these discussions.

Standards and Practices Opening Session

Granby Salon D

We will kick-off with an overview of the present state of the Standards and Practices Industry Committees, Consensus Bodies, and ANSI Standard activities, and have a briefing on SAWE’s new tools for Standards and Practices.  This should be informative to all.

Tue 8:00 am - 8:30 am
Standards and Practices

8:30 am - 4:30 pm S&P - Industry Committee Meetings

Airline Affairs

Energy 1

Ground Airline Affairs Committee – 2019-03-172 Draft Agenda

• Sign In, review the Anti-Trust policy
• Ask for volunteer to take minutes
• Perfect the Agenda (as needed)
• Allocate time to each topic
Old Business
• Review status of Action Items from the last meeting
• AC 120-27 Commercial Aircraft Operation status - Update
• AC 120-85 Cargo Aircraft Operation - Update
• Passenger Weight RP project status
New Business
• Certifi cation of MPEs Perspectives
o Regulators – EASA, FAA, others?
o Airframe and engine manufacturer
o Airlines
o Others MROs, suppliers
• Prep for Hamburg…
o Manufacturers – Airbus, Pilatus, etc
o Airlines – Lufthansa, KLM/AirFrance, Norwegian, Air Baltic, etc.
o Suppliers, MROs, engine
o Universities – Germany, France, Holland
o EASA presentation or involvement
• Status/Update AC 120-27 Commercial Aircraft Operation - especially in
regards to passenger weight standard
• On Board Aircraft Weight System –
o Some info… that can look to share… (Daniel)
• Emerging data standard and creation of RP C-9 Electronic Data Exchange
o Judi Cheeseman and Ingo Mollenhauer
o ISO 10303-242
• Read back the action items
• Identify goals

Tue 8:30 am - 4:30 pm
Standards and Practices

Ground Vehicles

Energy 2

The Ground Vehicles Industry Committee will hold a meeting and provide an opportunity for an open dialogue of industry concerns and issues. The meeting will be broken into a morning and afternoon session.

The morning session will include:
• General Committee Business
• Call for additional Ground Vehicles Industry Co-Chair nominations (two vacancies)
• Status of the committee’s current Recommended Practices
• Discussions of needed Recommended Practices, Standards, and technical papers in the future
• Discussion of Industry Contact Initiative

The afternoon session will include:
• Discuss RP G-1 path forward
• Review of RP G-2, Ground Vehicles Weight Management Terminology (Committee Draft)
• Review of existing industry standards (e.g., ISO, SAE) and determine gaps that could be filled by SAWE
• Changes to the SAWE Handbook pertaining to Ground Vehicles
• Ground Vehicle Industry Co-Chair Elections
• Identify topics for the 2020 conference in Hamburg, Germany
• Discussion of the impact of certification of Weight Engineers in the ground vehicles industries

Tue 8:30 am - 4:30 pm
Standards and Practices


Granby Salon B and C

Preliminary Agenda

  1. Sign and review the Anti-Trust policy
  2. Navy Co-Chair assignment
  3. Standards update and discussion
        a. ANSI Process
        b. Currency of RPs
  4. Marine Vehicle Weight Engineering textbook update - David Tellet
  5. ESWBS update
  6. NSTM Chapter 096 – update officially released 30 Dec 2018
  7. Paper 3715 - Negligible Weight Quantification for Surface Ship Weight Surveys
    1. General discussion
    2. Applicability / adoption – add to RP M-9?
    3. Thoughts on expanding to include real ship data
  8. Pre- versus Post-Delivery stability tests
    1. Accounting for “growth” (e.g. additional gym equipment, etc.) – document in weights to deduct or accept as Light Ship growth?
      1. If included in weight to deduct but accepted as growth, where to add back to Light Ship?
      2. Accounting for provisions, stores and repair parts
        1. Accounting for all items or only those above the “design” loadout?
        2. Accounting in Part II – reflect the as-inclined or as-designed condition?
  9. Establishing Condition 0 for Stability Tests
    1. Accuracy of draft readings versus freeboard measurements
    2. Acceptability of using freeboard measurements as primary means of establishing Condition 0
  10. NSRP update – Digital Deadweight Survey - Rob Parker/Jeb Baugh
  11. Status of recruiting individuals for representation from major shipyards and industry
  12. Open discussion


Tue 8:30 am - 4:30 pm
Standards and Practices

Military Aircraft



1. Introductions
2. Attendance List & Anti-trust Statement
3. Nominations for Chairpersons for 2019-2020
   a. US DoD representative
   b. US Industry representative
   c. European representative
4. Discussion Forum Topic – Mass Properties Control Success & Failures (1.5 hours)

10 minute break

5. Discussion Forum Topic – DoD Customer Proposal Evaluations (1.5 hours)


6. Discussion Forum Topic – Industry Use of RP A-8 for Commercial Derivative Aircraft (1 hour)
7. Status of RP A-7 (Kachurak)
8. Status of RP A-8 (Roman Aman)

10 minute break

9. Discussion Forum Topic – RP A-8 Suggestions/Complaints (led by Roman Aman)
10. MPE Certification Discussion
11. Presentation - CV vs Land Military Aircraft Weight Study (Kachurak)
12. Election Results

Tue 8:30 am - 4:30 pm
Standards and Practices

Missiles & Space

Momentum 1,2,3


• Review and sign the Anti-Trust policy
• Ask for volunteer to be meeting Scribe
• Perfect the Agenda (as needed)
• Allocate time to each topic

Old Business
• Review status of Action Items from the last meeting
• Status of Training Class based on RP A-3?
• Review currency of RPs
   o ANSI/SAWE RP A-6 – Working Draft Review and Approval
   o Decision to keep or withdraw RPs 9, 11 & 16,
   o Resolve the definitions of terms in Appendix II section 6 of RP 11 Part 1

New Business
• Presentation or forum about any current issue(s)
• Identify Co-Chair(s) for the 2020 conference in Hamburg
• Handbook editorial changes to M&S related chapters (30 Min by Damian Yanez)
• Discuss the impact of Certification of MPE on and in the M&S industry (1 hr)
   o SAWE Officers: President Bill Boze; Certification Committee Chair Yi-Ling Tam; and VP-Standards and Practices will attend the discussions
   o VP-Standards and Practices will provide a set of discussion points to get the discussion going

• Ask Scribe to read back the action items
• Identify goals

Tue 8:30 am - 4:30 pm
Standards and Practices


Granby Salon A


1. Review Old Business
   a. Actions
2. Election of Open Position for Co-Chairs
   a. 3 yr term – Open (Dave Bennett)
   b. 2 yr term – Robert Hundl
   c. 1 yr term – Bill Randall
3. Discussion on the State of the Industry
   a. Brief discussion of active/pending offshore projects, prospects for our offshore members in a questionable economy. ISO 19905 status/revision report from David Bennett. Can SAWE get involved?
4. Plan for RP development / advancement for 2019-2020
   a. RP O-4 Reporting
   b. RP O-5 WBS Systems
   c. RP O-6 Uncertainty and Risk Analysis
   d. RP O-7 Brownfi eld (In-service) Weight Control
5. Handbook
   a. Add offshore section

Tue 8:30 am - 4:30 pm
Standards and Practices

9:00 am - 2:00 pm Cannonball Trail and Lunch at the Freemason’s Abby

Cannonball Trail and Lunch at the Freemason’s Abby

XCHG Level Three Registration

Tue 9:00 am - 2:00 pm

Training - Tuesday

Aircraft Weight and Balance - Day 2

Tom OoleOffsite (Meet at Registration Desk)

Tue 9:00 am - 4:30 pm

10:00 am - 10:30 am Morning Break - Tuesday (Granby Salon E)

Morning Break

Tue 10:00 am - 10:30 am
Food Breaks

12:00 pm - 1:30 pm Standards & Practice Luncheon (4th Floor Salon B&C)

Standards & Practice Luncheon

Guest Speaker - Ron Murray
Newport News Shipbuilding
Vice President of Quality

The Loss of USS Thresher

This year’s Standards and Practices luncheon will build on the importance of standards and training certifi cation programs as told from our guest speaker’s perspective on the loss of the USS Thresher.
On the morning of April 10, 1963, the worst submarine disaster in U.S. Navy history happened when the nuclear-powered USS Thresher (SSN 593) was lost with 129 crew members and civilian employees on board.  The outcome of the post disaster investigation was the establishment and implementation of the United States Navy’s Submarine Safety Program
(SUBSAFE), a quality assurance program designed to maintain the safety of its submarine fl eet; specifi cally, to provide maximum reasonable assurance that submarine hulls will stay watertight, and that they can recover from unanticipated flooding.

Ron Murray is vice president of Quality for Newport News Shipbuilding, a division of Huntington Ingalls Industries. Named to this position in 2012, he is responsible for the shipyard’s quality assurance, quality control, and compliance policies and programs. He also oversees the planning, development and enforcement of comprehensive and integrated quality and continuous improvement across the shipyard. Since beginning his shipyard career as an engineer in 1989, Murray, a fourth-generation shipbuilder, has served in positions of increasing responsibility, including waterfront construction engineering, engineering supervisor for the Dry Deck Shelter Planning Yard, design manager for the 688-Class Planning Yard, manager of the SUBSAFE Program, and most recently director of Quality and Engineering Services. Murray is a Virginia Tech graduate, where he earned a bachelor’s degree in aerospace and ocean engineering and a master’s degree in ocean engineering. He is also a licensed professional engineer and graduate of the LEAD Virginia program. In addition, Murray serves on the Board of Directors for VersAbility Resources as well as the Foundation Board for Riverside Health System, and is a member of the American Society for Quality (ASQ) and the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers (SNAME).
Tue 12:00 pm - 1:30 pm
Special Events

3:30 pm - 5:00 pm RP C-9 DATA EXCHANGE - ISO-10303-242 (Energy 2)


Judi Cheeseman, Sebastian-Verian Herda (Airbus)

Sebastian-Verian Herda and Judi Cheeseman will lead an meeting to define the scope of their project titled Mass Properties Digital Data Attributes for PLM data exchange & Reporting, The purpose is to create consistent PLM data and exchange protocols will simplify MPD functionality set up in PLM & ERP systems. The STEP AP 242 fi le (ISO 10303-242) is a system
independent file format and is the best established specification within the Automotive, Aerospace, and Defence industries. It specifi es the application protocol for Model based 3D engineering. The STEP effort will be added to the other data exchange methods used by SAWE members such as MPEX, and RP M-1 to create a Cross Industry Function Recommended Practice.


• What is a Step AP242 file and why should it be used for standardization?
(Content, involved Companies…)
• Which minimum set of MP attributes is needed for the PDM Systems & Reporting?
• Which additional attributes and details (coherencies, relationships) are important for the Mass Properties work? (Risk & opportunities, roll up of mass/CGs/inertias, confi guration management, evolution information, units…)
• First Draft of proposed mass properties attributes
• Way Forward (Step AP242 Edition3)

Tue 3:30 pm - 5:00 pm
Technical Track

6:00 pm - 10:00 pm Spirit of Norfolk Dinner Cruise

Spirit of Norfolk Dinner Cruise

XCHG Level Three Registration

Tue 6:00 pm - 10:00 pm

Wednesday 22 May 2019

8:00 am - 9:30 am Technical Forum - Weight Control (Granby Salon D)

Weight Control Technical Forum

Moderator - Robert Zimmerman (SAWE VP-Technical Director)

The Mass Properties Engineer’s Signature Task – Weight Control

The touchy subject of Weight Control is front and center as the subject of this year’s
technical forum. When management thinks of mass properties engineering, their
fi rst thought is that their mass properties engineers keep control of the weight of their
project. We will explore what is involved in controlling weight – from defining the
requirements, creating a plan and obtaining consensus among subsystems engineers
and management, implementing and tracking the plan, contingency operations for
off-nominal excursions (corrective actions), and finally piece part, subsystem, and
final project verification.
Following a brief presentation that will provide fodder for further discussion, the
floor will be opened for a lively discussion of any and all aspects of weight control.

Wed 8:00 am - 9:30 am
Technical Track

Training - Wednesday

Automated Weight and Balance Software (AWBS) Training

Harold SmootMomentum 1

Wed 8:00 am - 5:00 pm

Developing Basic Parametric Methods

Andy WalkerMomentum 3

Wed 8:00 am - 5:00 pm

9:30 am - 10:00 am Morning Break – Wednesday (Granby Salon E)

Morning Break

Wed 9:30 am - 10:00 am
Food Breaks

10:00 am - 12:00 pm Aerospace Session #1 (Fusion)

Session Chairman: Werner Massinger (Airbus)

10:00 Paper 3721 A Weight and Center of Gravity Instrument for Measuring Manned Spacecraft

Daniel Otlowski (Space Electronics)


Rocketry dynamics equations prescribe that the mass properties of spacecraft, particularly the spacecraft’s mass and center of gravity (CG), be carefully choreographed throughout the launch, mission execution, and recovery stages. Mission design carefully selects CG locations for each of the spacecraft modules alone and in combinations, making CG verification an important step toward ensuring mission success. Measuring the CG of large spacecraft presents many of the typical problems associated with measuring CG of smaller objects. Some of these issues are commonly: constructing a measuring system with known geometry, maintaining the repeatability of said geometry under a wide array of load conditions, selecting force transducers with sensitivity appropriate to the verification tolerance, preserving that sensitivity throughout the measurement, and devising a method to relate the spacecraft’s datum to the instrument’s datum. A purpose-built, mass properties measurement solution that addresses all of these issues is the topic of this paper. In this paper, we will describe the form of the instrument, detail enabling technologies, explain performance drivers, and summarize our results.

Documents3721 Abstract (12 KB)
Wed 10:00 am - 12:00 pm
Technical Track

10:30 Vendor Presentation - Aerospace Corporation

Wed 10:00 am - 12:00 pm
Vendors & Exhibitors

10:45 Vendor Presentation - Lockheed Martin

Wed 10:00 am - 12:00 pm
Vendors & Exhibitors

11:00 Ascent Abort 2 Integrated Flight Test Vehicle, how mass properties are used to manage flight test objectives

Amanda Cutright

Wed 10:00 am - 12:00 pm
Technical Track

11:30 Welcome to SAWE

Damian Yanez (Gulfstream)

Wed 10:00 am - 12:00 pm
Technical Track

10:00 am - 1:00 pm Chrysler Museum of Art Tour

Chrysler Museum of Art Tour

XCHG Level Three Registration

Wed 10:00 am - 1:00 pm

10:00 am - 12:00 pm Marine Session #1 (Granby Salon A,B,C)

Session Chairman: Andreas Schuster (SAWE VP - Standards and Practices)

10:00 Paper 3720 A Practical and Proactive Way of Managing Weight & Center of Gravity Uncertainty Using the Successive Principle

Runar Aasen (BAS Engineering)


One of the challenges in mass properties is how to handle the uncertainty in an early stage estimate of weight and center of gravity (CG) and its impact throughout the life of the project.  Risk is sometimes defined as the product of consequence multiplied by uncertainty, and for many shipbuilding projects the consequence of missing the mark on either the weight or CG can be dramatic.   That makes reducing uncertainty essential to avoiding a high-risk project.

Dr. Steen Lichtenberg started as early as the 1970’s to develop a method for proactive management of uncertainty using the successive principle.  The method is a practical way to manage opportunities and risk.   The underlying philosophy states that realism in forecasts requires a qualitative phase as well as a quantitative phase.  In the qualitative phase, an analysis group of people should be established, while the quantitative phase should establish a basic structure of main items, followed by a systematic detailing process and an action plan.

While the method typically handles uncertainties related to the economics of large projects, this paper will look at how the principles and processes involved can be applied to the weight and CG challenges during ship design and construction.  A general introduction to the successive principle will be given, the basic applications will be presented, and discussions and examples of use cases will be included.  The goal is to add another tool to the toolbox of the weight engineer to help secure successful projects.

Documents3720 Abstract (13 KB)
Wed 10:00 am - 12:00 pm
Technical Track

10:30 Vendor Presentation - BAS Shipweight

Wed 10:00 am - 12:00 pm
Vendors & Exhibitors

10:45 Vendor Presentation - Praeses


Wed 10:00 am - 12:00 pm
Vendors & Exhibitors

11:00 Paper 3711 A Century of Submarine Mass Properties

David Tellet (Bad Engineering)


This paper takes a chronological look at major submarine design changes
during the last century and how those changes affected mass property
requirements including weight margins, centers of gravity and buoyancy,
special stability conditions, and weight control processes. The paper
discusses how the movement of submarine design from boats that can submerge
to submarines designed for near constant submergence changed performance
requirements including mass property limits. It discusses how the Cold War
influenced submarine design and how this affected mass properties
requirements and practices including deliberate margin depletion and
reduction in service life margins. It also discusses the change in the
importance of mass property measures and the influence of mass property
engineers as submarine designs matured and submarine missions changed. The
paper includes some thoughts on future submarine designs and how those may
affect mass property management practices.

Documents3711 Abstract (12 KB)
Wed 10:00 am - 12:00 pm
Technical Track

11:30 Paper 3715 Negligible Weight Quantification for Surface Ship Weight Surveys

Greg Roach ((Gibbs & Cox)


Shipboard weight surveys are routinely performed for surface vessels across the spectrum of marine industries from small pleasure craft to large surface combatants.  These surveys are typically part of a vessel’s stability test (weight survey & inclining experiment) usually required as part of the vessel’s delivery/acceptance or during its service life to confirm the safety of the vessel and/or crew/passengers has not been compromised from post-delivery modifications or inevitable weight & KG growth.  These stability tests may take a few days to a few weeks, with a large portion of the effort attributed to the weight survey itself.  Further, a large portion of the survey consists of inventorying smaller items which typically constitute a relatively small portion of the overall weight nor may have any appreciable impact to the overall results of the stability test.

To date (to the author’s knowledge), no official guidance or recommendation(s) exists on what or how to quantify as negligible weight(s) for the purposes of a weight survey.  This guidance, if available, may reduce the time required for survey and save considerable time and resources without appreciably changing the end result and/or conclusion.

With limited availability/diversity of actual ship survey data, the analysis will focus on the required precision of the stability test based on accepted requirements documentation.  This analysis will consider the size of the vessel which directly impacts the design’s sensitivity to weight, as well as the practicalities associated with the existing practices of shipboard surveys such as availability of the vessel or qualified personnel.  In addition, industry guidance on human engineering design will be used to establish “rules of thumb” for determining item weights and/or their potential impact to the results to aid in shipboard surveys

Greg Roach is a Sr. Naval Architect working at Gibbs & Cox in Arlington VA and has over 13 years’ experience in the field of naval architecture and marine engineering with a focus and interest in vessel weight & stability. He serves as lead Naval Architect for several commercial and naval programs at G&C and is co-chair of the SAWE Marine Industry Committee. He has a BS in Ocean Engineering from Virginia Tech.
Wed 10:00 am - 12:00 pm
Technical Track

1:30 pm - 5:00 pm Aerospace Session #2 (Fusion)

Session Chairman: Patrick Borden (Geocent)

1:30 Vendor Presentation - Altair

Wed 1:30 pm - 5:00 pm
Vendors & Exhibitors

1:45 Vendor Presentation - GEC

Wed 1:30 pm - 5:00 pm
Vendors & Exhibitors

2:00 Paper 3714 Weight and Design Data for World War II - Era United States Aircraft

Dudley Cate (NAVAir Retired)


Sources of weight data for World War II-era U.S. aircraft recently were located in the U.S. Federal Archives. The data is to the level of detail found in a short group weight statement. To the author’s knowledge, the weight data has not heretofore been publicly available. It was felt to be worthwhile to electronically tabulate the data and then make it available via the SAWE.

The paper begins with an introduction that identifies the groundrules and constraints associated with the material in the paper. The rest of the paper presents both weights and weight fractions for the weight empty groups and the useful load items for a wide range of aircraft. The aircraft are arranged by type (fighter, bomber, etc.), military service (Army or Navy), and chronologically by model (P-40, P-39, P-47, etc.). Also included for each aircraft are the weights of alternate fuel and payload items. For each aircraft, the weight empty and gross weight obtained from the archived data are validated by comparing them with weights found in open sources. Values for some of the weight-related design attributes for each aircraft are provided. Accompanying this data is a brief discussion of weight-related considerations for each aircraft.

The large number of aircraft for which data are included presents a clear picture of how group and total weights and weight fractions changed with time (e.g., from the pre-war Boeing P-26 to the post-war Lockheed P-80). The data also permit comparison of the differences between, for example, radial-engined and in-line-engined fighters, between Army and Navy fighters, between Navy dive bombers and torpedo bombers, and between biplane and monoplane trainers, to mention just a few of the possibilities..

Mr. Cate graduated from college in 1963 and began working the Weights Branch of what now is the Naval Air Systems Command. After several years there, he transferred to another area of the Command. In 1980 he returned to the Weights Branch as head, from which position he retired in 1997. Subsequently he served as an independent consultant for both industry and government organizations. He is a long-time member of the SAWE and served for many years as a co-chairman of the Government-Industry Military Aircraft Committee. He led the efforts to generate two updated revisions to SAWE RP A-8. He was named an SAWE Fellow in 1991 and Senior Fellow in 2010.
Documents3714 Abstract (28 KB)
Wed 1:30 pm - 5:00 pm
Technical Track

2:30 Presentation - Functional Small Parts Made from Thermoplastic Composites

Larry DiSano (Ensinger)

Wed 1:30 pm - 5:00 pm
Technical Track

1:30 pm - 5:00 pm Marine Session #2 (Granby Salon A,B,C)

Session Chairman: Tapan Mazumdar (NavSEA)

1:30 Newport News Apprentice School - 100 years

Bill Fox (Retired)

Wed 1:30 pm - 5:00 pm
Technical Track

2:00 Vendor Presentation - Northrop Grumman

Wed 1:30 pm - 5:00 pm
Vendors & Exhibitors

2:15 Vendor Presentation - Huntington Ingalls

Wed 1:30 pm - 5:00 pm
Vendors & Exhibitors

2:30 Paper 3718 Calculating Center of Buoyancy and Buoyant Force

James Blair (Space Electronics)


Stability of submersible vehicles is dependent on the relationship between the center of gravity and center of buoyancy locations on the object. Improper relationships between the two can reduce performance and adversely affect the mission goals of the vehicle. Measuring these values can reveal variations from the designed values that may have been introduced during the manufacturing or assembly process. These values can also change in modular submersible vehicles which allow swapping or modifying components based on the needs of their mission. Errors associated with an improper relationship may not arise until sea testing, which may lead to the need for vehicle disassembly in order to shift or change ballast weights of the submersible.
This paper examines a measurement system designed to measure the center of gravity and the center of buoyancy of a submersible object using a hanging weight and center of gravity instrument. The method demonstrated is applicable for vehicles ranging from a few pounds to upwards of 15 tons. With proper fixturing, the machine is capable of measuring center of buoyancy and center of gravity in all 3 axes, which can help determine lateral, longitudinal, and directional stability of a part. This paper outlines a process for measuring submersible vehicles (with negative or slightly positive buoyancy) to determine weight, buoyant force, center of gravity, and center of buoyancy.

Documents3718 Abstract (12 KB)
Wed 1:30 pm - 5:00 pm
Technical Track

3:30 America's Cup - A History

Jeanne Willoz-Egnor (Mariner's Museum)

Jeanne Willoz-Egnor has served as the Director of Collections Management and Curator of Scientific Instruments at The Mariners' Museum and Park in Newport News, Virginia since 1994. Spending over forty years in cultural institutions has given Jeanne a broad range of historical knowledge and experiences. Working closely with Oracle Racing, Inc. in recent years, Jeanne helped coordinate the donation of two hydrofoiling catamarans to the Museum and led a small team in the assembly of the AC72 USA-17, winner of the 2013 America’s Cup, for the Museum’s current blockbuster exhibition Speed and Innovation in the America’s Cup.
Wed 1:30 pm - 5:00 pm
Technical Track

4:00 Reporting of the Relevant Loading Condition of a Project for the Offshore Industry

Alex Maloy (Fluor)

Wed 1:30 pm - 5:00 pm
Technical Track

3:00 pm - 3:30 pm Afternoon Break - Wed (Granby Salon E)

Afternoon Break - Wednesday

Wed 3:00 pm - 3:30 pm
Food Breaks

3:30 pm - 5:00 pm Lessons Learned Meeting (Energy 2)

Lessons Learned Meeting

Wed 3:30 pm - 5:00 pm

6:00 pm - 10:00 pm Awards Banquet & Silent Auction

6:00 Social Hour and Silent Auction

Granby Ballroom Foyer

Wed 6:00 pm - 10:00 pm
Special Events

7:00 Awards Banquet

Granby Salon D

Wed 6:00 pm - 10:00 pm
Special Events

Thursday 23 May 2019

Virginia Air and Space Center Tour (XCHG Level Three Registration)

Tour of Virginia Air and Space Center

Thu 9:00 am - 1:00 pm