495. Integrated Non-Re-Entry Manned Spacecraft Hull Design


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J A Fager: 495. Integrated Non-Re-Entry Manned Spacecraft Hull Design. 1965.



A design of a manned non-reentry hull requires the unification and balancing of each of the multiple launch and space environment design criteria. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the interaction of seventeen primary design parameters on the selection of a hull structure. Several composite designs are presented that best meet different orbital and deep space mission requirements. The work refers entirely to the large non-recoverable portion of a spacecraft such as a space station, lunar or interplanetary manned living or laboratory module and not to the reentry craft.
The choice of materials and their deployment in the hull structure will first be treated as a function of the six major design criteria; radiation shielding, meteoroid protection, boost loads, boost phase heating, spacecraft pressure and the insulation required for manned space operation. Each parameter will be treated separately and then the interaction of related functions imposed as limitations on the unidiscipline solutions.
Five boundary conditions; acoustics, flutter, volume control as related to aerodynamic cross section, material sublimation, and the effect of integral radiators, are discussed as they limit or aid the six primary parameters.
Five other subjects; cost, fabrication, maintainability, reparability and redesign capability, are qualitatively evaluated for the selected hull designs. Redesign capability is based on the percentage of the hull that could be modified to meet changes in radiation or meteoroid criteria during production fabrication.
All sixteen parameters are then integrated in the evaluation of a series of hull structures. Tradeoffs and over plots of major parameters are made to demonstrate their effect on operational time, orbiting altitude, and reliability level. The final parameter of weight is added to demonstrate the effect of each criterion and to define the dictating operational design function. Summary tables are presented along with specific designs of optimum hull structures.


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